Mercosur or Mercosul is a regional trade agreement among Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay and Uruguay founded in 1991 by the Treaty of Asunción in order to promote the free trade of goods. Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador and Peru currently have an associate member status. In 1997, the Mercosur countries adopted the “Reglamento tecnico mercosur de identidad y calidad de leches fermentadas”, which defines yoghurt and other categories of fermented milks. According to the Mercosur regulation, yoghurt must contain live microorganisms.
There is no vertical European directive dedicated to yoghurt and/or fermented milks. Most of the EU member states have adopted a national legislation in line with the Codex Alimentarius, allowing the use of the name yoghurt only for living products. (Table to be updated)
(To be completed)
United States of America
In 1981, the FDA (Food and Drug Administration) issued the “yogurt standard of identity”. In 2000, the National Yogurt Association filed a petition in order to update the standard of identity of yogurt in the US. Following the publishing of an "Advanced Notice of Proposed Rule Making" (ANPR) in 2003, an updated proposed rule was stated by the FDA in January 2009. Unfortunately, the FDA's proposal does not limit (as requested by the NYA petition) the name yoghurt to products that contain a minimum level of live and active cultures.